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RAAS Cell Connectome

The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) is a hormone system within the body that regulates blood pressure and fluid balance, and is primarily regulated by the rate of renal blood flow. The RAAS includes many components, organs, cells, and genes, which are systematically connected. Three main hormones are included in the RAAS: renin, angiotensin II and aldosterone. In addition, the RAAS comprises a cascade of enzymes, substrates, and receptors expressed in different cell types in organs throughout the body and interacting in an endocrine fashion. The RAAS plays a crucial role in physiology, regulating sodium and water homeostasis. Furthermore, there are also non-classical aspects of the RAAS system (Ref: Bader, 2010), with components distributed throughout various tissues of the body and having different functionalities.

Inappropriate RAAS activation causes highly lethal consequences in diseases, including congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, primary aldosteronism, and most commonly hypertension. The blockers of the RAAS, including renin inhibitors, angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, Ang II type 1 receptor antagonists, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, play a cornerstone role in the hypertension treatment.

Image by Soupvector - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=66583851.

Above is a RAAS schematic figure, made by Soupvector - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=66583851

RAAS connectome of interactions:

The RAAS connectome consists of a series of interactions that involve different biomolecules at different cell types, tissues, and organs:

Cell types in RAAS connectome (from CL)

    RAAS includes the following cell types from different organs:

Locations (from UBERON)

    RAAS cell connectome is located at:

RAAS Molecular Components

    RAAS includes the following molecular components:

Biological Processes (from GO)

Biomarkers

Gene expression

Pathways and functional maps

References

 

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